A few weeks ago I read a blog post by Tom Tunguz, which basically split product features into 3: MMRs (minimum market requirements), Differentiators, Neutraliser, which is a brilliant segmentation of product feature. Do read the post.
Segmentation is a very powerful concept in every field. While the concept is popular in the marketing field, it is either knowingly or unknowing used in every vertical of an organization. The advantage of breaking down problems, products, metrics, leads, clients or anything else for that matter is the simplification of whatever task you are working on.
On the sales side, prospects are always segmented into high tickets/whales or low ticket/long tail. Sales & Business Development teams are at times segmented by the role, there are the hunters who job it is to get new clients on board and farmers, who specialize in growing current account. Breaking the Sales problem into distinct segments, the way to approach the problem becomes clear.
Marketing usually pushes the limits of segmentation. From drive-by users to abandoned carts, users can be segmented into micro-segments which have distinct messages and offers for each segment.
Breaking Problems down for founders.
From a founder perspective, taking all your goals for the year and breaking them down is the sanest mechanism when working to build a rocket-ship. You can break it down in whatever way that suits your organization, break it down into smaller problem statements which can be take up by different people or break it down into problems that can take one at a time. Build a rocket today to take a picture of the Mars today, and build a reusable rocket tomorrow. The more you slice and dice the problem, the more manageable, doable and simpler it will seem. Growing traffic for a website might seem like a hard challenge, but once you break your current traffic sources down, under each of them, you can get a sense of which source you can leverage and grow the fastest or in the easiest fashion.
Internal, External, Controllable and Uncontrollable factors.
An advantage of breaking any problem is the fact you can break it down into things you can control and those that you can’t. Ideally, you should attach the internal controllable problems first, then move the external controllable problems next, and then try to attack the rest so that they become more controllable or you internalize the problem in some fashion.
Taking a website traffic example, the type of content you write is always in your control, but how the content will do organically on Facebook is not under your control, it is an external, uncontrollable aspect of your traffic. Spending ad dollars on Facebook is controllable but is still an external factor.
Have you ever broken problems down? Do comment below and let me know.
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The ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
The Goal of Products
Products are at the end of the day tools which help users get the job done. The job might be helping a user get from point A to B (Uber), or watch content (Netflix) or express themselves with words (@medium). Each product might be doing a lot more in the background or foreground as most products do more than one thing. One of the goals of the product manager is to make sure that the user is happy and content when engaged with the product. Getting to know the users, all the users
How do you know the user is happy? How do you know your solution is solving the core need of the user? You could ask the user, be the user yourself or start looking at data to give you insights. During any of those exercises, if you are not empathetic to the user, you may miss opportunities to improve the product.
When the user takes that extra few seconds to find the next button, or when the user exhibits confusion, or when the user is just not able to get the job done are all examples of places where you have an opportunity to improve your product. Asking questions and more importantly observing the users is critical for PMs. Also just asking or observing a few users won’t cut it, users behave differently and have different capabilities. Products that have empathy
Google Search is my favorite product when it comes to showing empathy towards users. AutoSuggest & AutoCorrect are features driven to help the users. While they don’t directly help Google Search as a product, they help Google provide a better experience for the users, it reduces the effort required by the user to get their job done if they are slow at typing, for the ones fast on the keyboard, they help you get stuff down even faster with the keyboard.
Uber entire business is based on empathy, they want to make it easier and cheaper to get from point A to point B. If you don’t know where you are, they will make sure you are able to identify a point A, which also makes it easier to get their driver to get to you.
Sometimes the users will be blunt and let you know what you need to fix, or developers will make some fixes for you. Twitter Hashtags and thread creators were features built for Twitter by its users. Not all products can allow users to build something by themselves How to be more empathetic?
Ignore all the biases against any users, it is not the user’s job to know how to use the product.
Ask why they did what they just did, especially when they did something you did not expect
Keep observing them, be aware of any difference in behavior from them
Observe as much as you can without saying anything. When we are with the products we make we inherently pitch our product, which we need to avoid. Record what you can, you can record the user & the screen. User interviews are also a great way of showcasing problems to the rest of the team.
I have been into products this entire decade, and with the quest to become a good product manager comes the quest to learn ancillary things. One such thing is the user experience. Great products almost always have great and simple user experiences. I have picked up some basic UX principles along my Product Management Journey, which I have listed below. A heads up before you read: Some of the things I mentioned may be actual UX principles somewhere with nice names, but I never came across them. What I am trying to do is basically list a few key principles which are based more on experience and common sense, which are many a time completely ignored.
1. Reduce Motion of limbs
I want you to try an exercise, stop using alt+tab to change the apps you are working with for a day, instead use your mouse and the taskbar every time. Over time you will find the process painful and slow. Now imagine if you had you use a virtual button which was 6 inches to the right of your screen and 6 inches higher than your screen to perform the same task? How many times in a day do you think you could move your hand in the air today to do that task?
Key reasons user interfaces like from the movie Minority Report won’t work, is because they need too much effort from users. Too much movement makes the user tired. Which is also one of the reasons I hated hamburger menus and loved bottom bars in mobile apps. The amount of movement my thumb has to do is greatly reduced with bottom bars. I also love the double tap on the home button on iOS to get the entire screen down. As such bottom bars are making a comeback and growing into bottom sheets
An extension of this is keeping a count of the number of clicks and taps needed to do anything. The lesser the better. As such the only time more clicks and taps work is when the repeated press of a button changed the function being performed. Car steering wheels, for example, have limited space, but pressing the same button makes performances different tasks, the same goes for microwave ovens were pushing the start button multiple times adds 30 seconds to the timer
2. Reduce the options, have workflows
Your App is not an open-ended RPG
Photo by Martin Reisch on Unsplashh
This I learned when I was working on an Admin dashboard. Admin dashboards usually have lots of features, but you need to make them workflows which don’t make the user think. When you are creating a Push notification you can do it in a single page with all the options open to the user, but that will just confuse the user. If some of the features are depended on another, using workflow can actually make it easier. Want to send a broadcast, don’t even show the segmentation option. Workflows also inherently reduce the number of clicks/taps needed. This also means you have to reduce the cognitive load on users, which is where having steps to do a process helps. MailChimp does this very well, so does Facebook Ads. If you love TypeForm, it is probably because it is making the form a workflow, it makes you worry only about one single question.
3. Respect Muscle memory
If your product is not based on something brand new, users almost always know where buttons and things should be. Power buttons for monitors and TVs are almost always on the lower right side because people expect them there. Frankly, they may have been also put there assuming most people are right-handed and bottom location works for a person of any height. But now that is a defined behavior. While you can attempt to train people to change, it is hard. Have you tried driving a left-hand side driving car if you have been driving a right-hand drive car? Try it in a game it will be a struggle. Another place I recently came across was in an office where one of the conference room’s door was replaced with a sliding one, but everyone kept pushing it, the final solution was to put a sheet of paper which said “Slide ->” on it. Another instance I was lost was while trying to open the rear door of the Chevy Beat, the handle is hidden and at a place, you don’t expect a handle to be. Users don’t expect things to suddenly change unless you are reducing the workload of the users.
4. Don’t fall for trending UI/UX, but also respect the platform core design features
People will always design new things, but don’t blindly fall for them. Even if it is Apple or Google asking you to. What your user needs and what the owners of the platforms will always be different. It is your job to know the needs of the user and design an experience around it. Also, it is important to remember, no one will have all the right answers and design all the time, you need to find them.
5. See how your users behave, run User Experience Tests
Humans are creatures of emotion, emotions which can make them lie, even unknowingly. When building PureMetrics, one of the early users was a friend and was always positive about the product, but he never used it. So one day I went to his office and asked him to use our dashboard in front of me, and just keep thinking aloud. First few minutes went off well, and then he said, he never scroll past this point, as he never understood many of the charts there. That statement was a heartbreaking eye opener. We were trying to solve one problem, but it had a whole different problem underneath.
Now you don’t need to do a user test for everything, you can copy from popular products around which are battle tested. The stories format for example, or a feed. Those experiences are well defined, you don’t need to reinvent the wheel
6. There is no such thing as “the right way”
Finding the right UX needs the understanding of the problem the user is facing and then understanding the user itself, rather understanding all types of users for your product. Alt+Tab, for example, is a keyboard shortcut, which powers users are familiar with, but many first time users and casual users of a computer, actually use their mouse and the dock, it fulfills their basic need. Many iPhone users probably click the home button to go back to the home screen to change their app. Good user experience needs to take all the types of users.
How do you find such UX patterns?
For a start, you could read a bunch of books on UX design and human physiology. Another mechanism to figure out such patterns is just questions why users behave in the way they do and question why things are designed in the way they do. Questioning the behavior and the design will do one of two things; either answer your question or give you an opportunity to improve upon something.
What are some of your favorite UX principles? Let me know on Twitter